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Asthmaease by BioMax
Coleus forskohlii is an Aryvedic herb that increases cAMP. Over 5,000 in-vitro and in-vivo studies from 1981 to 1994 have looked at Coleus's ability to increase cAMP. The principal compound studied is forskolin. Herbal extracts are from the rootstock and standardized to their percentage content of forskolin. Forskolin activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase. This enzyme then increases intracellular cAMP. New research shows that forskolin also inhibits a number of membrane transport proteins and channel proteins not related to cAMP production.
Asthma cases have increased 400% since 1980 to approximately 20 million. Asthma is characterized by a hyper-response of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli, which results in a narrowing of the airways in the lung. Mast cells are intimately involved in releasing chemical mediators that enhance or inhibit the asthmatic attack. Mast cells have receptors for cAMP and cGMP. cAMP inhibits the release of histamine. cGMP enhances the release of histamine. cAMP is released under the stimulation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. The receptor that activates this enzyme is the beta receptor. Drugs that are beta receptor agonists enhance cAMP release and inhibit histamine release which eases the asthmatic attack. The relative ratios of cAMP and cGMP have a direct consequence on whether an asthma attack will occur.
It is the ability of C. forskohlii to activate intracellular cAMP that makes it so valuable as a therapeutic component of Asthma End. Forskolin stimulates the enzyme adenylate cyclase to release cAMP. cAMP levels rise which inhibits the release of chemical mediators. This relaxes bronchial smooth muscle and prevents bronchospasm.
Forskolin has been compared to the drug fenoterol in two studies. In a double blind study, 16 asthmatic patients were given fenoterol, dry powder and spray, and forskolin. All treatments improved bronchodialation and respiratory function. Fenoterol caused tremors and lowered blood potassium levels. No side-effects were reported with forskolin.
In another study, the protective effect of forskolin was measured against fenoterol. Both substances were administered by metered inhalers and then the lungs were challenged with inhaled acetylcholine. Forskolin at 3 and 5 minutes had the same protective effect as fenoterol. At 15 and 30 minutes fenterol had a stronger action. Forskolin has several modes of action in helping to modulate the inflammatory cascade that leads to asthma. It stimulates cAMP production and inhibits PAF (platelet-activating factor). The combined action of forskolin, ginkolides, lutein and zeaxanthin is a potent arsenal, in stopping and preventing asthmatic attacks.
Lutein & Zeaxanthin
Incidence of lung cancer has been markedly lower in Fiji than any other place in the world. 80% of Fijian men smoke, yet they have 25% or less incidences of lung cancer. (Int. J. Cancer: 63, 18-23 (1995).
These unexpectedly low lung cancer rates in Fiji had already been noted by Boyd et al. (1973) for the period 1965-1969 and are unlikely to be due to underreporting since rates for other cancer sites (cervix and liver) have been uniformly high among the countries studied (henderson et al., 1985). The number of cigarettes smoked, nicotine and tar content, were also consistent from country to country.
High consumption of green leafy vegetables containing lutein and zeaxanthin were determined as the protective agents for the Fiji population. Vitamin A (beta-carotene) and Vitamin E were found to have little or no protective properties for lung cancer.
Amounts as low as 10 mg of lutein per day taken orally found in food have exhibited the protective properties needed for lung protection.
In a cross over, double blind study, tylophora was tested against a placebo and a drug combination of ephedrine, theophylline and phenobarbitone (Thiruvengadam etal J Indian Med. Assoc., 71, (1978) 172. There was no significant difference between tylophora and the drug combination. Both were significantly better than the placebo.
Two modes of action have been proposed for the antiasthmatic effect of the alkaloids from Tylophora asthmatica. One is that the release of chemical mediators from mast cells is prevented. The alkaloids act as mast cell stabilizers. Asthma attacks are prevented because the mast cells don t release histamine thereby averting the muscle spasms that trigger bronchial asthma. The other mode of action is through the stimulation of the adrenal gland to maintain high levels of corticosteroids in circulation.
Tylophora asthmatica is included in the Ashtma End formula because it works synergistically with forskolin and lutein and zeaxanthin. The compounds in tylophora act to stabilize the mast cell. This keeps it from releasing the chemical mediators that trigger attacks.
Tylophora asthmatica is a perennial climber of the ascelpiadiaceae family that is found in the southern and eastern plains of India. It has been used in traditional medicine as an emetic, expectorant, antidysenteric, antirhuematic and bronchodilator. It's use as an emetic gave it the reputation as the Indian Ipecaccuanha. It was included as an official drug in the Bengal Pharmacopeia of 1884.
In the 1890's, the presence of alkaloids was determined. The isolation of the two main alkaloids, tylophodne and tylophodnine was reported in the 1935. In 1993, tylogenin was isolated from Tylophora sylvatica. Tylogenin is a steroidal compound with antiallergic properties.
The first clinical trials of tylophora were carried out in the late 1960's to determine the antiasthmatic effects as well as other observed pharmacological effects. The original trials reported that one raw leaf daily for six days given to bronchial asthma patients would give relief for several weeks.
The early animal studies showed an anti-anaphylactic effect, leucopenia, and an inhibition of the Schultz-Dale reaction (Haranath, P. S. R.K. and Shyamalakumari, S., Indian J. Med. Res. 63 (1975) 661. Further research showed a smooth muscle relaxant effect, antagonism of smooth muscle stimulants, and an inhibition of immunocyto adherence in adjuvant-induced arthritis and release of histamine from mast cells in a variety of animal species.
Human trials on bronchial asthmatic patients were conducted in the late 1970's and 1980's. Tylophora leaf powder was compared against the bronchodilator agent isoprenaline (Gore etal, Indian J Meal. Res. 71, (1980) 144. In this study, the powered tylophora did better in the lung function tests than isoprenaline.
The extracts from Ginkgo biloba are potent inhibitors of PAF (Platelet-Activating Factor). PAF stimulates platelet aggregation and degranulation. PAF is also involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions of which includes bronchoconstriction. The gingkolides compete with PAF for binding sites and attenuate the effects of a PAF cascade in initiating an asthmatic attack.
Forskolin has also been shown to be an inhibitor of PAF and works synergistically with Ginkgo biloba extract.
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